WHAT IS BREAST CANCER?

Breast consists of mammary glands and the channels conveying milk to the nipple. Uncontrolled and irregular reproduction of the cells settling mammary glands and channels as well as spread to various parts of the body through lymph by means of maintaining reproduction is called as breast cancer. It is the most frequently seen type of cancer in the world following the lung cancer. It is asserted that one out of every eight women will suffer from breast cancer at certain periods of their lives..

The most protective method against breast cancer is early diagnosis. The methods consisting of early diagnosis are as follows:

  • Self examination
  • Examination by doctor
  • Mammography and/or breast USG

However, in order for a cancer detected in the breast to be perceived via hand, averagely 2 years are required to be spent. Therefore, it is recommended to have a mammographic scanning made on a regular basis after the age of 40 even by the women regardless of the existence of any finding or symptom. It is known that breast cancer related deaths increase about 30% in the countries where regular scanning is performed.

WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS?

Female gender: Breast cancer is most frequently seen in women. The rate of breast cancer to be observed in men is less than 1%. Age of 50 and over: Breast cancer is generally observed at the age of 50 and over. Its frequency to be seen at the age of 3 and below is rather rare. The following factors increases the risk of breast cancer: if there is a breast cancer story in the parents and 1st and 2nd degree relatives (mother, aunt, grandmother, daughter), early menarche and late menopause, hormone replacement treatment, non-birthing, late pregnancy and non-lactation. If cancer develops in either breast of a woman, it is likely to develop cancer in the other breast about two times. The frequency of breast cancer also increases in the ones who were subjected to breast radiation due to other types of cancer (lymph cancer etc.). Nutrition and environmental factors: Fat-rich nutrition habits and weight gaining increase the risk of breast cancer particularly for the women going through menopause. Use of alcohol (more than one glass a day) also increases the risk of breast cancer whereas the effect of smoking is still being discussed. Regular exercise and physical activity, on the other hand, are known to decrease the risk of breast cancer. Genetic disorders: Hereditary (inborn) breast cancer genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) constitute 5-10% of all breast cancers.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF THE BREAST CANCER?

The symptoms of the breast cancer are as follows: any mass felt in the breast and armpit, flow in the nipple (unidirectional, self-flowing, bloody or serous flow), inward nipple curve, blush on the breast skin and nipple, asymmetric breast or breast growing and distant metastases related complaints. Cancerous masses are harder and irregularly limited and cannot be moved in the breast tissue freely. If at least one of the abovementioned symptoms is observed, you should immediately consult to a doctor. However, sometimes none of these symptoms can be observed and cancer may only be detected via mammography.

WHAT ARE THE DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR THE BREAST CANCER?

  • Imaging methods:Mammography, ultrasonography, MR
  • Biopsy methods: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy, Tru-cut biopsy, vacuum biopsy, incisional biopsy, needle marked breast mamography

WHAT ARE THE TREATMENT METHODS FOR THE BREAST CANCER?

Breast cancer treatment varies according to the stage of the disease

  • Surgical treatment
  • Breast oriented surgical operations: Breast protective surgery, mastetomy (removal of the whole breast)
  • Arm pit oriented surgical operations: sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection (operation for the removal of the armpit lymph nodes)
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Hormonotherapy

FEATURES OF DIGITAL MAMMOGRAPHY

Radiation dose significantly reduces. Examination period is shorter. The images can be monitored on the screen 1 minute after the imaging process. Radiation dose is lower than conventional mammography whereas image quality is higher. As small arthritis and lesions in the breast can be distinguished more easily, it facilitates fibrocyctis breast tissue evaluation. The images taken are archived in digital environment and can be transferred digitally. Radiologists have an opportunity to optimize the image parameters thanks to the digital technology. In this way, additional imaging and therefore additional radiation can be avoided of. The capability to work on digital images increase the precision of mammography for dense breasts.

Over the age o 40: General Surgical Examination + Digital Mammography
Below the age of 40: General Surgical Examination + Breast Ultrasonography
Relevant unit is in your service every day between the hours of 09:00 – 18:00 at the weekdays and 09:00 – 12:00 at the weekend.
For information and appointment: 444 1 300