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Colon Rectal Surgery and Proctology Center

What is Colon Rectal Surgery and Proctology? 

The top specialty that undertakes the surgical treatment of cancers and benign diseases of the colon (colon), last intestine (rectum) and anus (anal region) within the discipline of General Surgery is called colorectal surgery or coloproctology.  

Colon and rectum diseases cover a wide spectrum and can occur in a wide range from mild forms to life-threatening conditions. It has been proven, especially in studies on colon cancer, that early diagnosis significantly increases treatment success and survival times. A significant portion of the patients neglect their complaints because they do not care and / or feel embarrassed and apply at advanced stages. On the other hand, due to frequent similarities in the presentation complaints of different colon and rectum diseases, inaccuracies and delays in diagnosis are frequently encountered, and the treatment of the emerging conditions becomes difficult and healing rates decrease. This situation is valid in benign diseases as well as in cancers, and it has created the need for differentiation of colorectal surgery and proctology as a separate discipline starting from about 200 years ago. Today, the need for treatments produced by experts in their field continues to increase. 

Which diseases are treated by colon rectal surgery and proctology specialists? 

All operations (open, laparoscopic, multiorgan resection, etc.) of colon cancer, rectal cancer, anus cancer seen in the colon are performed. In addition, laparoscopic surgeries are preferably performed for familial polyps (ozis) syndromes (FAP, etc.) with a high risk of cancer, and colon / rectum polyps that cannot be removed by endoscopic means or need to be removed without disrupting their integrity due to cancer risk. 

All sorts of colon rectal resection are performed that may be needed during the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which are defined as inflammatory diseases of the intestines, in the treatment of colon-afflicted subgroups. With ileo-anal pouch surgery, bowel integrity can be preserved in these patients and defecation can be achieved in normal ways. In particular, anal area diseases accompanying Crohn's disease, which may be the reason for the patient's first application to the physician, are treated with higher success rates with the experience of experts in proctology.  

The treatment approaches used in these patients differ compared to individuals without Crohn's disease and require a detailed evaluation of the patient by a specialist in colon rectal surgery. 

 Interventions for pelvic floor diseases such as constipation, bowel prolapse (rectal prolapse), rectocele, and fecal incontinence are preferably performed by laparoscopic methods.  

Diverticulums that develop with pocketing in the wall of the large intestine can cause bleeding or inflammation. Diverticular disease is one of the most common causes of intestinal bleeding over the age of 50.  

Diverticulitis, on the other hand, is the infection of pockets that develops in the large intestine and can lead to life-threatening pictures and can be treated with surgical interventions in experienced hands. Complaints such as bleeding, itching, pain, and insufficient defecation sensation in the anus region, which are common in the community, require the evaluation of an experienced proctologist. 

 The most common diseases are hemorrhoids, anal fissure, anal fistula and anal abscess, and complaints at the time of admission can often be confused with each other. A detailed physical examination of the anal region followed by an evaluation of the anal canal with an illuminated anoscope is necessary for a correct diagnosis. Especially, evaluation of hemorrhoids and choosing the right treatments according to their stages require the experience of proctologists. Similarly, anal fistulas can be short and simple, as well as in complicated form involving deep tissues, and the first intervention performed by experienced proctologists increases the success of the treatment and reduces the recurrence rates. 
This content was published by the medical editorial board on 22.02.2021 and updated on 26.04.2023.